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FOOD AND INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY

Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed. WordPress Embed Customize Embed. URL: Copy. Presentation Description No description available. Antony von Leeuwenhoek Built a microscope and observed microbes. Theodore Schwann Proposed that alcoholic fermentation is brought about by living, fungus-like microbes. Charles Cagniard Latour Demonstrated that yeast can grow anerobically. Robert Koch Developed plating procedures for isolation of pure cultures. Wildiers Demonstrated the requirement of a mixture of vitamins or growth factors for the growth and fermentative capacity of yeast.

Kluyver Showed the similarity of metabolic pathways amongst the microbes and higher life forms. Alexander Fleming Discovered penicillin Development of the production of yeast biomass, glycerol, citric acid, lactic acid, acetone, butanol.

Depending upon the scheme of fermentation Batch fermentation Sterile nutrient broth is introduced into the pre-sterilized fermentor and inoculated. The culture goes through various cell growth phases like lag, stationary and death phase. The desired product and other metabolites accumulate in the fermentor and the same time nutrients get exhausted.

The process is stopped, desired product is recovered and the fermentor is cleaned and sterilized for next inoculation. The fermentation process has to be stopped at one particular stage, but a number of batches of nutrients are fed during the course of process, instead of just one filling at the start as in batch process. It is to be noted that unlike the Continuous processpreviously fed culture medium from the fermentor is not removed when new culture is fed.

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Thus volume of fed-culture increases with time. This can be repeated cascaded a number of times to increases the alcohol content in the broth. These are products of primary metabolism.

submerged fermentation process ppt

Undergoing Secondry metabolism. This involves sterilizing the fermentor, medium, ancillary equipments and inoculating the pure culture under aseptic conditions. This involves carrying out the process under conditions which allow and favour the growth of desired microbe while the growth of unwanted microbes is prohibited.

C Consortium fermentation. This involves growing a group of microbes together, the growth of which is dependent on one another. Suitable morphological form. Pure culture. Genetically stable culture. Surface fermentors or supported growth systems i. Method Sedimentation Flotation Centrifugation Flocculation Ultrafiltration Distillation C Purification This involves isolating the product in its purest form possible, free from all trace contaminants and variant forms of molecules if any.

Contact No. Follow us on:.Fermentation: An art from the past, a skill for the futureā€¦ Brain McNeil. What is fermentation? What is industrial fermentation? What is a fermenter? Fermenter Source: Wikipedia.

What are the main parts of a fermenter and their uses? A large vessel made of stainless or rust free material.

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Motors provided with an automatic control system. Heaters with thermostat system for providing and manipulating temperature. Pups for the addition or removal of substances and water to the fermenter. Gas source and pipeline system for aeration. Sensors for pH and aeration. Peripheral manual or automatic controlling facilities.

Provide a contamination free environment for the growth of microbes. Maintain optimum temperature in the system. Provide adequate mixing and agitation in the medium. Provide ample aeration for aerobic fermentation. Control and maintain optimum pH condition in the fermenter. Monitor the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the system. Allow the addition of nutrients in between the fermentation process in continuous fermentation.Copy embed code:.

Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed. WordPress Embed Customize Embed. URL: Copy. Presentation Description No description available. Useful where the shelf life of the end product is short. Useful specifically for the product produced only at the stationary phase. The organisms are continuously maintained at logarithmic stage. Sterile nutrients are added in increments. Characters of fed batch fermentation: Characters of fed batch fermentation Initial medium concentration is relatively low.

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Medium constituents are added continuously or in increments. Controlled feed results in higher biomass and product yields.

CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION FERMENTATION PROCESS

Fermentation is still limited by accumulation of toxic end products. Finally the products are harvested in one stroke. Some food fermentations involving SSF: Wheat by Aspergillus Soybean by Rhizopus Soybean by Aspergillus Phases of solid state fermentation: Phases of solid state fermentation The are 3 phases: Solid phase Liquid phase Gaseous phase Solid phase of there are two type: Natural solid materials An inert solid support Characteristics of solid state fermentation: Characteristics of solid state fermentation 1 The substrate may require preparation or pretreatment like, Chopping or grinding-reduce particle size Cooking or chemical hydrolysis Pasteurization or sterilization-reduce contaminants 2 Microorganism is usually a filamentous fungus requiring aerobic condition.

PowerPoint Presentation: Flow chart for the preparation of solid-state fermentor Advantage of SSF: Advantage of SSF A lower chance of contamination due to low moisture levels Ease of product separation Energy efficiencey Development of fully differentiated structures Disadvantage : Disadvantage Heterogeneous nature of the media,due to poor mixing characteristics.

At high agitation speeds,mycelial cells may be damage. Rotary-tray or rotating-drum fermenters are often used. Follow us on:.

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Views: In contrast to Submerged liquid state Fermentation, Solid State Fermentation SSF is the cultivation of micro organisms under controlled conditions in the absence of free water. Examples of products of Solid State Fermentation include industrial enzymes, fuels and nutrient enriched animal feeds. The application of modern biotechnical knowledge and process control technologies can lead to significant productivity increases from this ancient process.

General and microbiological aspects of solid substrate fermentation. Solid-state substrate fermentation SSF has been defined as the fermentation process occurring in the absence or near-absence of free water. SSF processes generally employ a natural raw material as carbon and energy source. SSF can also employ an inert material as solid matrix, which requires supplementing a nutrient solution containing necessary nutrients as well as a carbon source.

Solid substrate matrixhowever, must contain enough moisture. Low diffusion of nutrients and metabolites takes place in lower water activity conditions whereas compaction of substrate occurs at higher water activity. Hence, maintenance of adequate moisture level in the solid matrix along with suitable water activity are essential elements for SSF processes.

In bioprocess optimisation, sometimes it may be necessary to use a compromised size of particles usually a mixed range for the reason of cost effectiveness.

submerged fermentation process ppt

For example, wheat bran, which is the most commonly used substrate in SSF, is obtained in two forms, fine and coarse. Most of SSF processes use a mix of these two forms at different ratios for optimal production.

Fermentation Types: 8 Types of Fermentations| Industrial Biotechnology

Solid substrates generally provide a good dwelling environment to the microbial flora comprising bacteria, yeast and fungi. Among these, filamentous fungi are the best studied for SSF due to their hyphal growth, which have the capability to not only grow on the surface of the substrate particles but also penetrate through them. Several agro crops such as cassava, barley, etc. During the growth on such substrates hydrolytic exo-enzymes are synthesised by the micro-organisms and excreted outside the cells, which create and help in accessing simple products carbon source and nutrients by the cells.

This in turn promotes biosynthesis and microbial activities. Apart from these, there are several other important factors, which must be considered for development of SSF processes. These include physico-chemical and biological factors such as pH of the medium, temperature and period of incubation, age, size and type of inoculum, nature of substrate, type of micro-organism employed, etc. SSF has been considered superior in several aspects to submerged fermentation [SmF] due to various advantages it renders.

It is cost effective due to the use of simple growth and production media comprising agro-industrial residues, uses little amount of water, which consequently releases negligible or considerably less quantity of effluent, thus reducing pollution concerns. SSF processes are simple, use low volume equipment lower costand are yet effective by providing high product titres concentrated products.

Further, aeration process availability of atmospheric oxygen to the substrate is easier since oxygen limitation does not occur as there is a increased diffusion rate of oxygen into moistened solid substrate, supporting the growth of aerial mycelium.

These could be effectively used at smaller levels also, which makes them suitable for rural areas also. There are several important aspects, which should be considered in general for the development of any bioprocess in SSF.

submerged fermentation process ppt

These include selection of suitable micro-organism and substrate, optimisation of process parameters and isolation and purification of the product. Going by theoretical classification based on water activity, only fungi and yeast were termed as suitable micro-organisms for SSF. It was thought that due to high water activity requirement, bacterial cultures might not be suitable for SSF. However, experience has shown that bacterial cultures can be well managed and manipulated for SSF processes.

However, so far there is not any established scale or method to compare product yields in SSF and SmF in true terms. The exact reasoning for higher product titres in SSF is not well known currently.

The logical reasoning given is that in SSF microbial cultures are closer to their natural habitat and probably hence their activity is increased. Selection of a proper substrate is another key aspect of SSF. In SSF, solid material is non-soluble that acts both as physical support and source of nutrients. Solid material could be a naturally occurring solid substrate such as agricultural crops, agro-industrial residues or inert support.

However, it is not necessary to combine the role of support and substrate but rather reproduce the conditions of low water activity and high oxygen transference by using a nutritionally inert material soaked with a nutrient solution.

The second could be related with the goal of producing a specific product from a suitable substrate. In the latter case, it would be necessary to screen various substrates and select the most suitable one. Similarly it would be important to screen suitable micro-organisms and select the most suitable one.Home Uncategorized Submerged Liquid Fermentations. Submerged liquid fermentations are traditionally used for the production of microbially derived enzymes.

In the submerged process, the substrate used for fermentation is always in liquid state which contains the nutrients needed for growth. The fermentor which contains the substrate is operated and the product biomass is harvested from the fermenter by using different techniques then the product is filtered or centrifuged and then dried.

Submerged fermentation is a method of manufacturing biomolecules in which enzymes and other reactive compounds are submerged in a liquid such as alcohol, oil or a nutrient broth The process is used for a variety of purposes, mostly in industrial manufacturing The process can be used to make products such as citric acid, glycerol or lactic acid. Submerged culture fermentation has been widely used for the production of enzyme because in submerged fermentation unwanted metabolites are not produced and purification of enzymes takes place in an easy way Submerged fermentation involves submersion of the microorganism in an aqueous solution containing all the nutrients needed for growth.

Fermentation takes place in large vessels fermenter with volumes of up to 1, cubic meters. The fermentation media sterilizes nutrients based on renewable raw materials like maize, sugars, and soya.

Most industrial enzymes are secreted by microorganisms into the fermentation medium in order to break down the carbon and nitrogen sources.

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Batch-fed and continuous fermentation processes are common. In the batch-fed process, sterilized nutrients are added to the fermenter during the growth of the biomass. In the continuous process, sterilized liquid nutrients are fed into the fermenter at the same flow rate as the fermentation broth leaving the system. Parameters like temperature, pH, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide formation are measured and controlled to optimize the fermentation process.

Next in harvesting enzymes from the fermentation medium one must remove insoluble products, e. This is normally done by centrifugation. As most industrial enzymes are extracellular secreted by cells into the external environmentthey remain in the fermented broth after the biomass has been removed.

The enzymes in the remaining broth are then concentrated by evaporation, membrane filtration or crystallization depending on their intended application. If pure enzyme preparations are required, they are usually isolated by gel or ion exchange chromatography.

Several types of submerged type of fermentors are known and they may be grouped in several ways: shape or configuration, whether aerated or anaerobic and whether they are batch or continuous. Modern fermentors are highly automated and usually have means of continuously monitoring, controlling or recording pH, oxidation-reduction potential, dissolved oxygen, effluent O2, and CO2, and chemical components. The bioactive compounds are secreted into the fermentation broth. This fermentation technique is best suited for microorganisms such as bacteria that require high moisture.Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline.

Some features of the site may not work correctly. Pandya Published Chemistry. Citric acid is the most important organic acid produced in tonnage and is extensively used in food and pharmaceutical industries. It is produced mainly by submerged fermentation using Aspergillus niger or Candida sp. However, other fermentation techniques, e. Save to Library. Create Alert. Launch Research Feed. Share This Paper.

Tables from this paper. Citations Publications citing this paper. Potential role of the common food additive manufactured citric acid in eliciting significant inflammatory reactions contributing to serious disease states: A series of four case reports Iliana E. SweisBryan C. Cressey Medicine Toxicology reports References Publications referenced by this paper. Citric acid production from various raw materials by yeasts.

IkenoM. MasudaK. TannoI. OomoriN. Takahashi J. The utilization of beet molasses in citric acid production with yeast Helena KautolaWaldemar RymowiczY. LinkoPekka Linko Chemistry Sanchez-Riera Fermentation is one of the oldest technologies used for food preservation.

Over the centuries, it has evolved, been refined and diversified.

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Today a variety of fermented foods is produced both in industrialised and developing countries using this technology at the s. A wide range of raw materials is used as substrates and panoply of products is concocted. Foods derived from fermentation are major constituents of the human diet all over the world.

Although advances in food science and technology have given rise to a wide range of new food technologies, fermentation has remained an important technology throughout the history of mankind.

Many benefits are attributed to fermentation. It preserves and enriches food, improves digestibility, and enhances the taste and flavour of foods. It is also an affordable technology and is thus accessible to all populations.

Furthermore, fermentation has the potential of enhancing food safety by controlling the growth and multiplication of a number of pathogens in foods. Thus, it makes an important contribution to human nutrition, particularly in developing countries, where economic problems pose a major barrier to ensuring food safety.

Submerged liquid fermentations are traditionally used for the production of microbially derived enzymes. Submerged fermentation involves submersion of the microorganism in an aqueous solution containing all the nutrients needed for growth.

Submerged fermentation process - Fed batch and continuous fermentation

Fermentation takes place in large vessels fermenter with volumes of up to 1, cubic metres. The fermentation media sterilises nutrients based on renewable raw materials like maize, sugars and soya. Most industrial enzymes are secreted by microorganisms into the fermentation medium in order to break down the carbon and nitrogen sources. Batch-fed and continuous fermentation processes are common. In the batch-fed process, sterilised nutrients are added to the fermenter during the growth of the biomass.

In the continuous process, sterilised liquid nutrients are fed into the fermenter at the same flow rate as the fermentation broth leaving the system. Parameters like temperature, pH, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide formation are measured and controlled to optimize the fermentation process.

submerged fermentation process ppt

Next in harvesting enzymes from the fermentation medium one must remove insoluble products, e. This is normally done by centrifugation. As most industrial enzymes are extracellular secreted by cells into the external environmentthey remain in the fermented broth after the biomass has been removed.

The enzymes in the remaining broth are then concentrated by evaporation, membrane filtration or crystallization depending on their intended application. If pure enzyme preparations are required, they are usually isolated by gel or ion exchange chromatography. Several types of submerged type of fermentors are known and they may be grouped in several ways: shape or configuration, whether aerated or anaerobic and whether they are batch or continuous.


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